일본의 교육개혁 2015-2024 그리고 계속되는 개혁   2018-01-03 (수) 17:20
김경범  
   일본의 교육개혁 2015-2024 그리고 계속되는 개혁 (김경범).pdf (209.6K) [90] DATE : 2018-01-03 17:20:29

일본의 교육개혁 2015-2024 그리고 계속되는 개혁
 
 
김경범 (서울대학교 서어서문학과)
 
 
  지금 일본에는 초중고 전 교육과정, 대학입시, 대학교육에 이르는 전면적인 교육 개혁이 2015년부터 진행되어 2024년까지 10년에 걸쳐 완성될 것이다. 1989년의 ‘유도리 교육’, 1997년 ‘교육개혁 프로그램’, 2001년 ‘21세기 교육신생플랜’에 이어, ‘고대접속’(高大接続)으로 명명된 ‘고교교육, 대학교육, 대학입학자 선발의 일체적 개혁’이 현재 진행 중인 교육개혁이다. 이 개혁은 기존의 유도리 교육과 학력 저하 논쟁을 극복하고 시대적 환경에 부합하는 새로운 학력관에 기초하여 일본 교육을 전면적으로 쇄신하려고 한다. 그래서 어떤 이는 이 개혁을 메이지유신(明治維新)에 비하기도 한다. IB(International Baccalaureate) 교육과정을 도입하고 객관식 센터시험과 대학 본고사 중심의 대입 제도를 완전히 새롭게 만든다는 내용이 알려져 있지만, 이 새로운 교육개혁을 알려면 2014년 12월 20일자로 발표된 중앙교육심의회의 답신을 보아야 한다. 여기서 교육개혁의 청사진이 만들어졌기 때문이다. 이 답신을 소개하는 이유는 IB 교육과정 도입처럼 일본 정부가 제시한 정책들을 우리도 따라가야 한다는 의미가 결코 아니다. 일본은 잘하고 있고 우리는 못하고 있다는 뜻도 아니다. 이 답신은 우리도 1995년 ‘5.31 교육개혁’을 대체하는 새로운 교육개혁을 만들어야 한다는 점을 웅변하듯 보여주고 있기 때문이다. 일본의 공교육이 일본 사회의 미래를 만들어가는 데 장애가 된다는 의식이 교육개혁의 동력이 되었다면, 우리의 공교육은 우리 아이들이 살아갈 미래를 대비하게 하는데 얼마나 도움이 되고 있는지 성찰해야 한다. 우리의 학교 교육은 아이를 어떤 어른으로 키워내고 있는가? 또 어떤 어른으로 키워낼 것인가? 이 질문에 대하여 우리는 답을 갖고 있지 않다. 교육과정 총론에 있는 답은 답이 아니라 종이 위에 뿌려진 잉크일 뿐이다. 교육과정 총론이 학교 수업 현장에서 구현되고, 학교 교육 중심의 대학 입시가 만들어진 적이 있었던가. 초중고 교육과정에서 키운 역량으로 대학에 입학하고, 우리의 대학 교육을 통해 성장한 학생이 창의적인 지식을 생산해본 적이 있었는가. 학교 교육의 목적에 대한 현실적인 답은 좋은 대학에 보내는 것이겠지만, 지금은 과거와 달리 좋은 대학을 가더라도 기대하던 결과를 얻지 못할 가능성이 크다. 우리는 지금 무엇을 해야 할까. 이 질문에 대한 일본의 답안이 중앙교육심의회의 2014년 12월 답신이다. 그렇다면 우리는 지금 무엇을 해야 하는가. 누가 우리의 질문에 답할 것인가.
 
 
*다음 답신의 원문은 일본 문부과학성 홈페이지에 탑재되어 있다. 여기에 첨부한 파일의 내용은 번역의 완성도가 크게 부족하니, 학문적 목적으로 활용할 경우 반드시 원문을 확인하기 바란다.   


※ 본 칼럼은 필자의 고유의견이며 ‘교육을바꾸는사람들’의 공식견해가 아닙니다.  

 

 
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jingting17 18-08-11 19:19
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